Electric Vehicles come in many shapes and sizes that require different types of chargers and batteries. Moving forward, charging connectors are becoming more and more standardized. Different regions currently have different standards with India using a mix of them and having its own standards. AC and DC chargers also have different connectors between them.
For 4 wheelers and large commercial vehicles:
Moving forward for AC chargers Type 2 or mennekes plugs are going to be the most common, similarly for DC chargers CCS type 2 looks like it will become the Gold standard for most of the EV charging station manufacturers.
Tesla is one of the only global companies to have its own connectors for AC and DC charging but they also have to support Type 2 chargers in Europe as per European norms.
For 2 and 3 wheelers:
2 and 3 wheelers usually have only DC chargers, use much more standard, off the shelf connectors and Anderson connectors.
Types of EV batteries:
Lead acid batteries: were invented in the 1800 and used in a lot of early EVs. They do not store a lot of electricity but are inexpensive and easily recyclable. 3 wheelers still use lead-acid batteries in India but will soon phase out.
Nickel cadmium: were used very briefly in the 90s but had major issues after discharging and are not used in EVs. cadmium is also very toxic and is prohibited to be used according to some of the electric car charging stations manufacturers India.
Lithium ion battery: Most modern EVs and consumer electronics run on lithium batteries. The prices of these batteries have slowly reduced with better mining and manufacturing processes. It offers a good life span and energy density but requires special charging electronics. Within Lithium batteries, there are many different types, some with cobalt or manganese, or iron phosphate.
Lithium batteries do have a problem of catching fire but this has reduced significantly with R and D progress and increased use of these batteries.
These batteries can also be upcycled and used as backup power for homes and businesses one their peak charge capacity reduces.
As we target to use more and more EVs, lithium batteries will alone not be sufficient as the demand for the batteries will outstrip supply and mining. There are many other technologies being considered and tested to replace Lithium batteries to make the batteries more eco-friendly, lighter. Charging has also been at the forefront of new battery development with potential batteries charging faster and faster.
Sand and seawater batteries are also in development as they are both available in abundance.
Current technologies of EVs and batteries are just the starting point. We don\’t even know where the technologies will be in the next 50 years. But the majority of EV charger suppliers in India is focused on developing better batteries based on the principles of the circular economy. This would make sure that mining for new materials would reduce and once made a battery would have a better end of lifecycle use or would be upcycled.
We hope to see batteries that would charge up fully within minutes and electric vehicle charging companies in India provide a cleaner alternative to lithium and make the planet even greener.